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Race, Culture, and Diversity

Transition to Adult Living: A Guide for Secondary Education
California Department of Education

The purpose of this guide is to provide technical assistance for the achievement of positive post school outcomes for students with disabilities for the appropriate implementation of the transition requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1997 (IDEA '97) as delineated in the final regulations published on March 12, 1999. This guide also provides technical assistance to implement California legislation that has a direct impact on the transition from school to adult living of students with disabilities (e.g., the High School Exit Exam and Certificate of Educational Achievement or Completion). The guide is designed to be used by state education agencies, local education agencies, teachers, parents, and students to improve post school outcomes for these students and aid in compliance with federal and state law.

Advancing in Higher Education: A Portrait of Latina/o College Freshmen At Four-Year Institutions, 1975-2006
Sylvia Hurtado, Victor B. Sáenz, José Luis Santos, Nolan L. Cabrera
Hurtado, S., Sáenz, V.B., Santos, J.L., & Cabrera, N.L. (2008). Advancing in higher education: A portrait of Latina/o college freshmen at four-year institutions, 1975-2006. Los Angeles, CA: Higher Education Research Institute, UCLA.

The portfolio of surveys that constitute the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP), which began with The Freshman Survey in 1966, has expanded over the years to include Your First College Year, the College Senior Survey, and The Faculty Survey. The CIRP is now the nation's largest and oldest empirical study of higher education, involving over 1,900 institutions, over 13 million college students, and nearly 400,000 faculty. Numerous studies have been generated on the experiences of underrepresented groups in higher education using CIRP data, including studies of access and equity (Astin, 1982; Astin & Oseguera, 2004), campus racial climates and their effects on students (Hurtado, 1992; Hurtado, Han, Sáenz, & Misa, 2006). The longitudinal studies have served to inform us about underrepresented groups and the educational benefits of diversity in the college environment.

CONTACTS: Interpersonal Communication in Theory, Practice, and Context
Gamble, T. K., & Gamble M. W.
Gamble, T. K., & Gamble M. W. (2005). CONTACTS: Interpersonal Communication in Theory, Practice, and Context. Boston, NY: Houghton Mifflin

How do you perceive yourself? What do you expect from others? How do you evaluate the effectiveness of your daily interactions? Whether it is with friends, family, or co-workers, enacted "up-close and personal" or with technological assistance, interpersonal communication affects the nature and development of all relationships. Contacts: Interpersonal Communication in Theory, Practice, and Context encourages you to explore the central role that interpersonal communication plays in your life. Through case studies, literary excerpts, critical-thinking exercises, and real-world examples, this highly interactive book will help you become a more insightful and effective communicator.

Be more successful in your daily interactions by:

Understanding the roles that gender and culture play in interpersonal communication   - Learning how technology and mass media influence and shape our relationships  - Gaining the ability to interact effectively in various contexts, such as in family, work, and health situations

California’s Gold: Claiming the Promise of Diversity in our Community Colleges
Blaze Woodlief, Catherine Thomas and Graciela Orozco
Woodlief, B., Thomas, C., & Orozco, G. (2003). California’s gold: Claiming the promise of diversity in our community colleges. Oakland, CA: California Tomorrow.

California's Community Colleges comprise the largest and most diverse system of higher education in the world. For Californians who have traditionally faced barriers to schooling—communities of color, immigrants, low-income and first generation college goers—the system is the main gateway to higher education and a brighter future. People of color make up 55% of the student body and immigrants 25%. What do they have to say about how the colleges are fulfilling their historic mission of access for all? What supports and barriers do these students encounter, and how are they doing? What do the teachers, counselors and administrators of the colleges have to say about the challenges of serving diverse students well?

In California's Gold, California Tomorrow presents one of the most comprehensive investigations into these questions through interviews with students and staff in community colleges up and down the state. Inspiring and troubling answers emerge, along with promising practices and recommendations at the classroom, campus, system and state policy levels. California's Gold includes a new study of how a cohort of students achieved their aspirations in terms of degrees, certificates and transfer over six years.

Challenging & Supporting The First-Year Student: A Handbook for Improving The First Year Of College
M. Lee Upcraft, John N. Gardner, and Betsy O. Barefoot
Upcraft, M.L., Gardner, J.N., & Barefoot, B.O. (2005). Challenging and supporting the first-year student: A handbook for improving the first year of college. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

An authoritative, comprehensive guide to the first year of college, Challenging and Supporting the First-Year Student includes the most current information about the policies, strategies, programs, and services designed to help first-year students make a successful transition to college and fulfill their educational and personal goals.

Color-Line to Borderlands: The Matrix of American Ethnic Studies
Johnnella E. Butler
Butler, J.E. (2001). Color-line to borderlands: The matrix of American Ethnic Studies. Washington: University of Washington Press.

Ethnic Studies...has drawn higher education, usually kicking and screaming, into the borderlands of scholarship, pedagogy, faculty collegiality, and institutional development," Johnnella E. Butler writers in her Introduction to this collection of lively and insightful essays. Some of the most prominent scholars in Ethnic Studies today explore varying approaches, multiple methodologies and contrasting perspectives within the field. Essays trace the historical development of Ethnic Studies, its place in American universities and the curriculum, and new directions in contemporary scholarship. The legitimation of the field, the need for institutional support, and the changing relations between the academic scholarship and community activism are also discussed.

Counseling Across Cultures
Paul B. Pedersen, Juris G. Draguns, Walter J. Lonner, and Joseph E. Trimble
Pedersen, P.B., Draguns, J.G., Lonner, W.J., & Trimble, J.E. (Eds.). (2002). Counseling across cultures (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Counseling Across Cultures, Fifth Edition provides multiple perspectives of counseling with representatives of each perspective speaking from their own viewpoint. The contributors examine the cultural context of accurate assessment and appropriate interventions in counseling, highlighting work with groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanics, American Indians, refugees, and international students. The fifth edition has enlarged its focus by adding new chapters that address school counseling, spiritual issues, multicultural aspects of health psychology, and how to conduct research in cross-cultural and multicultural counseling. A statement of primary and secondary objectives at the beginning of each chapter provides focus for the reader and structure for the faculty using this book in the classroom.

Doing Diversity in Higher Education: Faculty Leaders Share Challenges and Strategies
Winnifred R. Brown-Glaude
Brown-Glaude, W.R. (Ed.). (2009). Doing diversity in higher education: Faculty leaders share challenges and strategies. Piscataway, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Incorporating case studies from a rich variety of colleges and universities throughout the nation, Doing Diversity in Higher Education examines the role faculty play in improving diversity on their campuses. The power of professors to enhance diversity has long been underestimated and their initiatives often hidden from view.

Winnifred R. Brown-Glaude and a stellar group of contributors uncover major themes and offer faculty and administrators a blueprint for addressing important issues facing higher education. Essays explore how to dismantle hostile microclimates, sustain and enhance accomplishments, deal with incomplete institutionalization, and collaborate with administrators. The contributors believe working on behalf of diversity should not be considered faculty 'service,' but rather a genuine intellectual project. This accomplished collection provides a wide array of models for institutional change.

Enacting Diverse Learning Environments: Improving the Climate for Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Higher Education
Sylvia Hurtado, Jeffrey Milem, Alma Clayton-Pedersen and Walter Allen
Hurtado, S., Milem, J., Clayton-Pedersen, A., & Allen, W. (1999). Enacting diverse learning environments: Improving the climate for racial/ethnic diversity in higher education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report, 26(8).

Research over the years has begun to provide important guidance in understanding how to achieve diversity while improving the social and learning environments for students from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. One key to enacting diverse learning environments lies in understanding and developing programs and policies to improve the campus climate for racial/ethnic diversity, which involves understanding the environment from the perspectives of members from different racial/ethnic backgrounds, creating opportunities for improved race relations that permeate the classroom and extracurricular lives of students, and realizing the educational benefits of diverse learning environments for students who will need to be prepared to meet the demands of a complex, diverse society. Given the extensive effort and progress colleges and universities have made toward diversification in the last 20 to 30 years, it is important to reflect on how learning and educational objectives can be maximized.

Faculty Diversity in Higher Education: Perspectives on race, ethnicity, gender, and disability
American Academic
American Federation of Teachers. (2008). Faculty diversity in higher education: Perspectives on race, ethnicity, gender, and disability. American Academic, 4(1).


First in the Family: Your College Years
Kathleen Cushman
Cushman, K. (2006). First in the family: Your college years. Providence, RI: Next Generation Press.

First in the Family: Your College Years is a unique advice guide that presents the voices of sixteen real students who are the first in their families to go to college. Packed with useful resources and heartfelt stories, this book is an excellent guide through the key issues—from cultural conflict to academic challenge—facing first-generation students.

Increasing the Success of Minority Students in Science and Technology
Eugene Anderson and Dongbin Kim
Anderson, E., & Kim, D. (2006). Increasing the success of minority students in science and technology. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

...To this end, the American Council on Education (ACE), with the support of the Rockefeller Foundation, is seeking to make the success of students of color a high priority for institutions. Success is broadly defined, to include not only persistence and graduation rates, but also other indicators, such as equity in GPAs, participation in honor societies and awards, and postgraduate experiences (such as enrollment in professional and graduate degree programs). This paper is the fourth in a series that addresses different dimensions of ensuring the success of students of color. This paper provides important data regarding the persistence and success of African-American and Hispanic students in science and technology. The first paper in the series argued for the use of equity indicators and hard data to bring about institutional change that advances campus diversity. The second outlined leadership advice for presidents, particularly newly appointed ones, regarding advancing a campus diversity agenda. The third paper in the series provided a legal framework for important questions presidents should consider as they move forward using different strategies to ensure the academic success of students of color.

Learning and Not Learning English: Latino Students in American Schools
Guadalupe Valdés
Valdés, G. (2001). Learning and not learning English: Latino students in American schools. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Focusing on the lives and experiences of four Mexican children in an American middle school, the critically acclaimed author of Con Respeto examines both the policy and the instructional dilemmas that surround the English language education of immigrant children in this country. Using samples and analysis of the children's oral and written language as well as an examination of their classrooms, school and community, this book addresses the difficulties surrounding the teaching and learning of English for second language learners. This comprehensive volume discusses:

Classroom activitiesThe amount of time it takes to "learn" EnglishHow English language learning affects learning in other areasThe consequences of linguistic isolationHow ESL students are tested

It also presents exclusive data on academic English development at various stages in a two-year process that raise important questions about current ESL teaching policies.

Millennials Go to College
Neil Howe and William Strauss
Howe, N., & Strauss, W. (2007). Millennials go to college (2nd ed.). USA: LifeCourse Associates.

They are called the 'Millennial Generation.' They include all Americans born since 1982. They are flooding into America's campuses. And they are nothing like the "Gen-X" youth who preceded them.

Many college leaders wonder how they should respond to these new students. Now, thanks to this book by America's leading generational experts, they can find out.

In cooperation with the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, Neil Howe and William Strauss of LifeCourse Associates present Millennials Go to College, 2nd Edition. The first edition of the book received wide acclaim, and was featured on 60 Minutes in 2005.

Strauss and Howe are coauthors of five other best selling books—Generations, 13th Gen, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and Millennials and the Pop Culture—and in 2003 were ranked by American Demographics magazine among the top trend forecasters of the last twenty-five years.

In this new book, Howe and Strauss explain what's behind this new Millennial wave—everything from the rise of 'helicopter parents' to the decline in substance abuse, from shifting perceptions of race and gender to new problems over money, cheating and peer pressure. The authors also address the next big transition on the doorstep of higher education—the transition to Gen-X 'stealth fighter' parents. For each issue, the authors offer a hands-on list of 'what to dos'.

Minorities in Higher Education: Twenty-Second Annual Status Report
Bryan J. Cook and Diana I. Córdova
Cook, B.J., & Córdova, D. I. (2006). Minorities in higher education: Twenty-second annual status report (22nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

In its strategic plan, Connections to the Future, the American Council on Education (ACE) articulates one of its core values in the following statement: 'ACE values inclusiveness and diversity, recognizes higher education's responsibility to society, and embraces the belief that widespread access to excellent postsecondary educational opportunities is the cornerstone of a democratic society.' This 22nd edition of the Minorities in Higher Education Annual Status Report is a reflection of that value statement and of our commitment to its implementation. ACE is proud to publish this report and gratefully acknowledges the generous support of the GE foundation.

Multicultural Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Lifespan Perspective
Leroy G. Baruth and M. Lee Manning
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

The lifespan perspective that provides framework for this text reflects the current emphasis on lifespan development and stresses that mental health issues and counseling problems differ for children, adolescents, adults, and elders. Effective multicultural counseling requires that counselors understand the problems unique to the client's culture, as well as the problems unique to the client's developmental period. It takes only a few examples to illustrate the need to consider both culture and development in counseling intervention: Mental health issues of the American Indian child differ from those of the Asian American elder; similarly, African American children have unique problems that differ from those of Asian American children or even from those of African American adults.

Our emphasis on five cultural groups—African American, American Indian, Asian American, European American, and Hispanic American—was determined by two main factors. First, these five groups currently represent the most populous cultures in the United States. Second, these five cultural groups all have significant challenges that will increasingly require counseling intervention. Moreover, acculturation of younger generations threatens the continuance of the cherished values, traditions, and customs associated with each of these five cultures.

Multicultural Education and the Internet: Intersections and Integrations
Paul C. Gorski
Gorski, P.C. (2001). Multicultural education and the internet: Intersections and integrations. New York, NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Multicultural Education and the Internet: Intersections and Integrations helps teachers apply a variety of World Wide Web resources to effective multicultural teaching practices. More than simply a great list of site references pertinent to the field, this guide also offers an exploration of how the Web can be used as an effective tool in multicultural classrooms through discussion of:

The Web as a means for implementing curriculum reform

The benefits of getting connected to a global network of educators

The development of online communities

Strategies for assessing Web sites from a multicultural standpoint

A wealth of suggested general and subject-specific resources is included. These thoughtfully organized, annotated references cover:

Sites that facilitate interactive teaching and learning

Sites that provide opportunities for collaborative learning

Bulletin boards, chat rooms, and discussion groups focusing on multicultural education and related topics

Sites that give students and teachers the opportunity to share their work with others

Sites that give voice to often underrepresented groups

Multicultural Reflections on “Race and Change”
Compiled and edited by Kitty Oliver
Oliver, Kitty. (2006). Boca Raton, FL: Bordiguera Press

Few places in the United States provide the goldmine of diversity found in South Florida, and what better place to look at race relations – past and present – from a variety of cultural perspectives. The Race and Change Project has produced an impressive oral history archive, housed at the African American Research Library and Cultural Center in Fort Lauderdale, which features over 100 interviews with Blacks, Whites, and immigrants all talking about their race relations experiences before and after the Civil Rights Act of 1964. A multi-ethnic group of students at Florida Atlantic University in Boca Raton, Florida, most not even born then, were challenged to confront these historical accounts and explore their own generational experiences around race in thoughtful, candid, creative ways. The result is this collection, Multicultural Reflections on "Race and Change." It features 22 writers who blend their personal stories with the voices of archival oral histories, weaving a rich tapestry of memories into a dialogue on differences that is sure to spark more discussion. If you've ever wondered how to make history relevant, how to make it a living thing for younger people, or how to talk about race in new ways, then Multicultural Reflections on "Race and Change" gives you a road map definitely worth considering.

Raising Multicultural Awareness in Higher Education
Ana Maria Klein
Klein, A.M. (2006). Raising multicultural awareness in higher education. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, Inc.

Raising Multicultural Awareness in Higher Education taps into the appropriate mechanisms for increasing cultural awareness among teacher candidates. The book includes narratives and practical instructional approaches for teacher-educators and teacher-candidates to aid in understanding the multicultural education field. It explores positive constructivist approaches in the field of multicultural education that enables teacher-educators and teacher-candidates to make appropriate decisions and choices in today's classrooms.

Recovery from Everyday Racisms
Clarence Earl Williams, Jr.
Williams Jr., C.E. (1999). Recovery from everyday racisms. Detroit, MI: The Institute for Recovery from Racisms.

Recovering from Everyday Racisms is an approach to deal with the social illness of racism from the perspective of intervention. This intervention focuses on erroneous belief system of racial caste hierarchy and the resulting dysfunctional behaviors originating from our racialized formation in a culture of white supremacy.

The author outlines a treatment program borrowing from the work of Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross' 'death and dying' stages. The program is designed to assist individuals and groups recovering from their collusion with white supremacy, and invites them to become collaborators in New Family formation. In place of their racialized self, the new self emerges as a person who sees everyone as their sister and brother.

Williams uses the metaphor of the dysfunctional family to describe the racial interaction patterns of the Americas, and the global village. Through the paradigm of family dysfunction, he constructs a treatment plan that allows the individual and/or the group to begin the journey from racial dysfunction to racial sobriety.

The recovery process stages are the same for Whites and Nonwhites, but the focal content of the issues are different. There are six communities of origin that are profiled in the racisms recovery program: White Supremacy, Whites relating to Nonwhites, Nonwhites relating to Whites, Nonwhite supremacy, Colorists and Intermediates. Each group has a different response to white supremacy which results in not one racism, but 'racisms'.

Shooting for Excellence: African American and Youth Culture in New Century Schools
Jabari Mahiri
Mahiri, J. (1998). New York, NY: National Council of Teachers of English

Two teachers, both African American, teach English in the same inner-city high school. Ms. Parks has astounding success – her students read, interact, and strive for success. Ms. Jackson's students, on the other hand, are frequently disruptive. They also sleep in her class, some of them snoring peacefully. Why the difference? Jabari Mahiri probes deep into the causes of this and other issues that affect American schools today. Through a series of ethnographic studies, he reveals the dynamics of effective learning – on the basketball court and in the classroom. The concept of teacher as coach takes on new meaning when we observe Ms. Cato in her Chicago high school. Videos, interviews, writing classrooms contribute to the research data. Mahiri demonstrates how two connected cultures – of African Americans and of youth – cannot be ignored if one is to effect change in education. His scope encompasses computer technology, multiculturalism, tracking, race relations, the canon, as well as specific aspects of African American culture, such as signifying and receiver-centered discourse. In his remarkable closing chapter, he projects a vision of an American high school ten years from now. Mahiri speaks from his experience as a former high school teacher, as an advocate of popular culture and critical pedagogy, and as a scholar of secondary education.

Start Seeing Diversity: The Basic Guide to an Anti-Bias Classroom
Ellen Wolpert
Wolpert, E. (2005). Start seeing diversity: The basic guide to an anti-bias classroom. St, Paul, MN: Redleaf Press.

How does bias appear among young children? How can caregivers address bias in their early childhood classroom?

Reorganized for stand-alone use as a student text, Start Seeing Diversity helps teachers recognize and address bias with young children by illustrating one community's effort to create a responsive child care program.

Developed by teachers at Washington-Beech Community Preschool in Boston, this training handbook introduces teachers to bias as it emerges in the early childhood classroom, and helps them establish a framework for responding effectively. Nine detailed chapters contain information on six areas of bias—gender, age, sexual orientation, race and ethnicity, economic class, and physical abilities—as well as the goals and guiding assumptions of anti-bias curriculum. Accompanying discussion questions encourage readers to examine their own memories and experiences.

Perfect for pre-service and in-service teacher training, this helpful guide includes information-rich appendices containing:

Guidelines for challenging oppression and responding to incidents involving biasA checklist for creating and assessing anti-bias environmentsA guide to analyzing children's booksDirections for making photograph games like the ones used at Washington-Beech

Also includes sample scenarios, details for classroom implementation, suggested resources, and guidelines for group leaders.

Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities
Robert Reid and Torri Ortiz Lienemann
Reid, R., & Lienemann, T.O. (2006). Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities guides teachers and other practitioners through the effective use of strategy instruction, proven by researchers to be a powerful instructional approach for students with learning disabilities, students at risk for school failure, and other struggling learners. The reader is taken through what, why, and how of a classroom-validated model of strategy instruction—Self-regulated Strategy Development—in conjunction with practical examples of how to teach powerful academic learning strategies.

Teaching Unprepared Students: Strategies for Promoting Success and Retention in Higher Education
Kathleen F. Gabriel
Gabriel, K.F. (2008). Teaching unprepared students: Strategies for promoting success and retention in higher education. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

This book provides professors and their graduate teaching assistants—those at the front line of interactions with students—with techniques and approaches they can use in class to help at-risk students raise their skills so that they can successfully complete their studies.

The author shares proven practices that will not only engage all students in a class, but also create the conditions—while maintaining high standards and high expectations—to enable at-risk and under-prepared students to develop academically, and graduate with good grades. The author also explains how to work effectively with academic support units on campus.

The ideas presented here—that the author has successfully employed over many years—can be easily integrated into any class.

The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the Future of America
Edited by Steven Fraser
Fraser, Steven. (1995). The Bell Curve Wars: Race, Intelligence, and the Future of America. New York, NY: BasicBooks.

The Bell Curve by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray has generated a firestorm of debate, confirming for some their secret belief in the innate inferiority of certain "races" or ethnic groups, angering many who view the book as an ill-concealed racist manifesto, and worrying untold others who fear the further racial polarization of American society. In The Bell Curve Wars, a group of our country's most distinguished intellectuals dismantles the alleged scientific foundations and criticizes the alarming public policy conclusions of this incendiary book.

Anyone who has wondered about the connection among genes, race, and intelligence, all those anxious about racial antagonisms in our nation, those who question the efficacy of social welfare programs, all those troubled but unconvinced by Herrnstein and Murray's book, will want to read The Bell Curve Wars.

The Changing Face of Today’s Customer: Strategies for Attracting and Retaining A Diverse Customer and Employee Base In Your Local Market
Doug Lipp
Lipp, D. (2003). The Changing Face of Today’s Customer. Fair Oaks, CA: Hickethier Publishing International.

Stop Using Common Sense! Try "Cultural Sense" Instead. At Los Angeles' University High School, 40 different languages are spoken. This is the bewildering reality of the American marketplace today, and certainly, tomorrow. In The Changing Face of Today's Customer, author Dough Lipp guides you through the complex cultural landscape of America in the new millennium and creates strategies for attracting diverse customers in your local market, no matter where you're based. By learning to use "cultural sense," you will learn how to keep your diverse customers coming back, and understand what "think globally, sell locally" is really about.

The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America
Stephen Steinberg
Steinberg, Stephen. (1981). The Ethnic Myth: Race, Ethnicity, and Class in America. New York, NY: Atheneum.

Sociologist Stephen Steinberg boldly challenges the current trend toward increased ethnic awareness, and argues that traits which are often considered "ethnic" may well be more directly related to class, locality, and other social conditions. This in-depth investigation of the economic and historical factors affecting various American minority groups also provides fresh insight into why some American immigrants succeed and others fail.

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